One of the downsides of this however is that client expectations on what is possible in certain areas of forensic science often greatly exceed what can actually be done. Usually the enquiry involves a signature on a will or a commercial document. The signature itself may not be in dispute but the actual date of signing may be critical to the resolution of the matter. Often the client believes that the document can be easily analysed to give an exact date the ink was placed on the paper. This testing has the disadvantage that the original document must be released to a laboratory, something that is problematic for many legal documents and potentially expensive for the client. Depending on the scientific method used, some results of such testing are of questionable value, and have been successfully challenged in court. To determine the commercial availability of a specific ink based on its chemical constitution, ink reference libraries do exist, but they are generally the preserve of government agencies and as such are not available to the vast majority of professionals working privately in the FDE field. Other techniques offer more possibilities. Examination of the document as a whole may offer clues to its age.
Ink Dating—The State of the Art
Many writers, particularly those who write well and freely, are from time to time making slight but persistent changes in their handwriting. These changes are usually few in number compared with all the characteristics of the writing and do not change the general style, but often are sufficient, with adequate material for comparison, to show conclusively that a writing was made before or after a certain definite time. An interval of five years or even less, under certain health or changed business conditions, may show a number of permanent and significant changes.
Ink & Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination & Ink Dating Expert Witness. Dr. Lyter provides consultation, examination, training.
There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.
There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools. The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document. The pinholes themselves are not typically easily visible unless the document is held up to light, and the testing has no negative effect on handwriting analysis.
All of the proposed testing follows Court approved testing methods, e. Under appropriate circumstances, the Court may order destructive testing of all or some portion of the physical item in question. Douglas E.
Carbon dating signatures
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may be of assistance in determining the relative date of documents or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type, printer, fax machine etc. There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers were produced but these rely very heavily on the presence of a watermark in the paper.
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may also be of assistance or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type. Similarities in paper type, colour, content, fibres, sizes etc can yield valuable information when determining similarities or differences between papers.
The types of pen, printers etc may be significant in assessing the date of a document and as with many of the dating techniques, the evidence is often more valuable or significant when an anachronism is established as opposed to compliance with other materials, papers etc which may have been available for a prolonged period of time. Other aspects of documents relating to defects in features such on printed or typewritten document, the presence of trash marks or incidental marks on photocopies or laser prints etc may also yield valuable information concerning the dating of the document.
The chemical analysis of writing and printing.
Expert witnesses who are available to consult and testify regarding ink dating may be found here. The consultants found through this page may provide reports on forged checks, signatures, questioned documents, ink analysis, and forensic ink dating, as well as expert witness testimony on these and related issues. You may limit your search for Ink Dating expert witnesses to a specific area by selecting a state from the drop down box.
Featured Experts. Document examinations are provided in the following areas: handwriting, typewriter, photocopies, Global Forensic Services, LLC formerly Stewart Forensic Consultants, LLC is an independent laboratory and consulting firm providing investigation, forensic and litigation support to individuals, companies and firms.
Our services include ink age, handwriting, Applied Forensics, LLC. Location: District of Columbia and Maryland. Document examinations are provided in the following Albert H. Location: North Carolina.
Chemical Ink Dating
In this paper we describe a case in which a cash book, dated of the year , was sent to the Forensic Science Division, Document Laboratory, Zurich Canton Police in March The questioned document was a list of 29 pages containing a consecutive handwritten numbering and dated entries payments made of blue ballpoint pen ink. By definition, a cash book has to be written by hand and the entries have to be made daily.
This paper evaluates the current approaches used for dating writing inks and takes a critical look at conclusions that can be made on the basis of the different.
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AGE OF SIGNATURE/INK – Anil Gupta Forensic Service
Cerca in archivio. Scrivi alla redazione Seguici anche su Facebook Iscriviti al feed rss. It is possible to examine xerographically ink materials and determine the extent to which they have been exposed to environmental conditions. This can provide an estimate of age. Additional examination evidence are being evaluated that concern the other referenced materials.
Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination. It is possible to examine xerographically ink materials and determine the extent to.
Have questions? Give us a call IPS Testing is able to determine likely age ranges for paper products by using wood fibers, pulping chemistry, paper additives and surface treatments to serve as dating markers. Our experienced fiber science team, led by Walter Rantanen, has developed an international reputation for paper and document forensics. While exact age dating of papers is not possible, the process is often able to exclude samples as being made in the time period of question.
Walter Rantanen has developed a large database of paper with known ages. He has also worked closely with Paul Messier and the Museum of Modern Art to develop a similar database for photographic papers. Typical paper forensic services that IPS provides to its U. Rantanen examined a large number of photos that were carefully dated to determine what fiber species and pulping processes were used from the early s through the late s.
If you would like to learn more about this case, you may read Richard B. We have also been asked to date service records from the WWI time frame that also turned out to be counterfeit. In addition, as experts in foreign currency and counterfeit analysis, IPS has trained members of the U. Testing Services for the paper, nonwovens, packaging, and consumer products industries.
Ink Dating Expert Witnesses
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Southworth has been using date codes on most of our watermarked grades since at least The reason for the date code is so that Southworth can tell what year the paper was made. Southworth has received numerous calls asking if we can determine when a particular sheet of our paper was made. On approximately half of the calls we receive, we identify that the paper was made after the document states it was written. One of the calls that Southworth received was from Mr. Marvin H. Dawson wrote the following article explaining first hand how important a date-coded watermark can be.
One of the questions a forensic document examiner is asked to solve many times is the age or common origin of two or more sheets of paper. For the average examiner paper analysis alone does not resolve the question. The age or common origin of the document s may be determined through typewriting, printing, handwriting or even ink analysis; however, many times the problem may be quickly solved if a watermark is noted on the documents s. If there is a date mark on the watermark, the case could move even more quickly.